Ikonnikov Dmitriy Sergeevich, Candidate of historical sciences, head of the Anthropological laboratory, sub-department of human anatomy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Artemova Serafima Nikolaevna, Candidate of geographical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of geography, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The results of human interaction with nature in certain historical periods overlap and form a kind of cultural landscapes. Tracking the centuries-old processes of economic development of the territory of the regions, explaining changes in land-use types allows us to evaluate the experience of ethnic groups in the creation of adaptive environmental management and the preservation of cultural heritage. The purpose of this work is to reveal the peculiarities of the formation of cultural landscapes of the Penza region in the period from the 2nd millennium BC. in the first half of the second millennium AD, which is characterized as a pastoralagricultural stage of economic development.
Materials and methods. The work is based on the method of spatial-temporal analysis of the process of economic development, based on a comparison of paleogeographic, archaeological and historical data with modern landscapes.
Results. The considered period of economic development of the territory of Penza region is characterized by climate change towards cooling, which contributed to the spread of forests. The lush meadows served as pastures, and the landscapes of floodplains and floodplain terraces were favorable for farming. Climate change affected population migration and close contact with different ethnic groups. There was an increase in population, the development of agriculture, crafts, construction.
Conclusions. At the initial stage of the producing economy in the region, an increase in the population occurred and the first negative natural processes appeared at the local level. The most significant transformation of landscapes occurred in the valleys of the rivers Sura and Moksha, and in different ways in the floodplains (hoe agriculture) and on the slopes in the valleys of small rivers (slash-and-burn agriculture). However, the culture of the peoples who initiated the radical transformation of zonal landscapes reflects knowledge of nature and elements of adaptive nature management.
1. Kalutskov V. N., Ivanova A. A., Davydova Yu. A., Fadeeva L. V., Rodionov E. A. Seminar «Kul'turnyy landshaft»: sb. dokl. [Seminar “Cultural landscape”: collected reports]. Mosow, 1998, 136 p.
2. Ikonnikov D. S., Artemova S. N., Prikazchikova O. F., Zhogova M. L. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Povolzhskiy region. Estestvennye nauki [University proceedings. Volga region. Natural sciences]. 2017, no. 4 (20), pp. 116–127.
3. Kosmachev K. P. Doklady Instituta geografii Sibiri i dal'nego Vostoka [Reports of the Institute of Geography of Siberia and the Far East]. Irkutsk, 1969, iss. 24, pp. 65–75.
4. Dergachev V. A. Geograficheskie issledovaniya v Moskovskom universitete: Traditsii, perspektivy [Geographic research at Moscow University: Traditions, prospects]. Moscow, 1976, pp. 208–212.
5. Belorybkin G. N. Zapadnoe Povolzh'e v srednie veka [Western Volga region in the middle ages]. Penza, 2003, 199 p.
6. Ikonnikov D. S. Ocherki istorii khozyaystva Verkhnego Posur'ya i Primokshan'ya XI–XIV vv.: Arkheologicheskoe issledovanie [Essays on the economic history of Upper Posurye and Primokshanye in XI–XIV centuries: an archeological research]. Saarbrűcken:
LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2013, 187 p.
7. Artemova S. N., Ikonnikov D. S., Lomov S. P. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Povolzhskiy region. Estestvennye nauki [University proceedings. Volga region. Natural sciences]. 2017, no. 3 (19), pp. 91–106.
8. Polesskikh M. R. Arkheologicheskie pamyatniki Penzenskoy oblasti: putevoditel' [Archeological memorials of Penza region: Guide]. Penza, 1970, 158 p.
9. Kul'tura Bilyara: Bulgarskie orudiya truda i oruzhie X–XIII vv. [The culture of Bilyar: Bulgarian implements and weapons of X–XIII centuries]. Moscow, 1985, 216 p.
10. Ikonnikov D. S. Povolzhskie finny i ikh sosedi v drevnosti i srednie veka: materialy III Vseros. nauch. konf. (g. Saransk, 30 noyabrya 2011 g.) [Volga region Finns and their neighbours in the ancient and middle ages: proceedings of III All-Russian scientific
conference (Saransk, November 30th, 2011)]. Saransk, 2011, pp. 101–108.
11. Lomov S. P., Solodkov N. N. Eolovye geosistemy (pamyatniki neolita), sovremennye i pogrebennye pochvy poym basseyna r. Sury [Aeolian geosystems (memorials of the late Stone Age), modern and buried soils of floodplains of the Sura river basin]. Penza:
PGUAS, 2014, 196 p.
12. Yamashkin A. A. Geoekologicheskiy analiz protsessa khozyaystvennogo osvoeniya landshaftov Mordovii [Geoecological analysis of economic development of landscapes in Mordovia]. Saransk: Izd-vo Mordovskogo un-ta, 2001, 232 p.
13. Zelentsova O. V. Arkhiv Penzenskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta imeni V. G. Belinskogo [Archive of Penza State Pedagogical University named after V. G. Belinsky]. Moscow, 2006, 23 p.
14. Bobrovskiy M. V. Lesnye pochvy Evropeyskoy Rossii: bioticheskie i antropogennye faktory formirovaniya [Forest soils of European Russia: biotic and anthropogenic factors of formation]. Moscow: Tovarishchestvo nauchnykh izdaniy KMK, 2010, 359 p.
15. Petrenko A. G. Stranitsy istorii Volgo-Don'ya [Pages of the history of Volga-Don region]. Penza, 1995, pp. 61–73.
16. Bogatkina O. G. Stranitsy istorii Volgo-Don'ya [Pages of the history of Volga-Don region]. Penza, 1995, pp. 73–85.
17. Belorybkin G. N. Arkhiv Penzenskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta imeni V. G. Belinskogo [Archive of Penza State Pedagogical University named after V. G. Belinsky]. Penza, 1990, 22 p.
18. Alikhova A. E. Arkhiv Instituta arkheologii RAN. R-1. № 2102 [Archive of the Institute of Archeology of RAS. R-1. № 2102]. Moscow, 1960, 12 p.
19. Alikhova A. E. Arkhiv Instituta arkheologii RAN. R-1. № 2770 [Archive of the Institute of Archeology of RAS. R-1. № 2770]. Moscow, 1963, 12 p.